A thorough knowledge of the origin of MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES will demonstrate that mathematics requires the following essential skills: 1. OBSERVATION 2. QUANTIFICATION 3. DERIVATION 4. DOCUMENTATION and 5. MODERNIZATION, which includes knowledge of computer applications.
In this article we will study how VEDIC MATH made use of the first four criteria in the science of mathematics, thus paving the way for the last criterion, that is, modernization, including computerization.
1. MATH AS A SCIENCE OF OBSERVATION SINCE THE VEDIC PERIOD
Nature has its own rhythm and order. Intelligent beings, the moment they are born on Earth, begin to observe the environment around them and notice the rhythm and order. Mathematical calculations begin at a very early stage of growth.
Even animals have the power to judge space and time. Animals like the tiger, the cat, etc. they judge distances before jumping. This is obvious when they catch their prey by jumping distances. Most of the time, they don’t fail. In the same way, birds perceive distances and time and travel thousands of kilometers across continents to join their companions.
Hence, it is the basic instinct of living beings to observe, judge and make decisions.
But MAN, by virtue of the unique intelligence it possesses, is able to prescribe various measurement techniques and bring uniform measurement systems in Space and Time. Mathematics is a science of observing the Universe around us and measuring things using various techniques. This process has started from very early ages of evolution, such as the search for food, shelter, etc. At present, there are very modern mathematical techniques that prevail through the use of computers; however, the basis remains the same.
VEDAS are the oldest scriptures in the world and we can see that the foundations of mathematics were laid in those days. Some of the observations made by the people of the Vedic age that have resulted in accurate mathematical calculations are as follows:
* The calculation of the pregnancy period was done accurately. Naturally, this could have been one of the first calculations made by humans. Perhaps even medical science could have started from the study of childbirth and the subsequent care of the mother and child.
* Man, after observing the Earth for some time he looked up and looked at the sky. His keen observations and recording of astral movements led to the new science ASTRONOMY.
* All calculations related to the exchange of goods, assets, although carried out through barter, were based on mathematics.
* The auspicious times were calculated on the basis of almanacs and calendars, which were based entirely on arithmetic calculations.
* Agricultural cycles, seasons, etc. they were based on a rhythm controlled by mathematics.
* The life cycles of various species were also fixed for a particular period depending on the species.
Therefore, all the activities of the Universe are controlled by precise mathematical calculations. The Rishis (great saints) of ancient times, by their simple observation, were able to calculate, record and also predict the future.
We will briefly see how the Vedas dealt with the above topic as stated in the early teachings of mathematics.
2. QUANTIFICATION (SCALE SETTING).
In very early ages, there were no fixed scales. The man used parts of his body and his movements to measure. He used steps and palms to measure distances, and then he multiplied them by several steps and extended them to very great distances like light years. He also used the blinking of his eyes to measure time and extended such small measurements to millions of years.
As stated in the previous paragraph, the normal blink of the human eye is taken as the most fundamental unit of TIME. A NIMESHA is the time it takes for a normal human eye to blink once. 15 NIMESHAS constitute a KASHTA. 30 KASHTAS constitute a KALA. 20 KALAS constitute a MUHURTHA. 30 MUHURTHAS constitute a day of the current 24 hours and 30 of those days constitute a month.
Six months constitute one AYANA and one year consists of 2 AYANAS. This year is equivalent to a DAY for Devas (heavenly subjects or lesser gods). So once again, let’s take 360 days (1 day = 2 Ayanas for heavenly subjects). This is a year for them. 12,000 of those years are known as 4 Yugs (ages). (Centuries). (Krudh Yuga, Dreta Yug, Dwaper Yug and Kali Yug). The age we are living in is KALI YUG (BLACK AGE). One thousand ChaturYug is a day for Brahma, (The Creator). A MANVANTRA is a fourteenth part of the one Brahma day.
Thus, a Manvantra is equal to: 71 Chaturyug, 542 Divine years, 10 Divine months, 8 Divine Days, 7 Divine Murthas, 4 Divine Kalas and 8 Divine Kashtas, and 8.5 Divine Nimeshtas.
These calculations were given by the Vedic Rishi named Parasarar; This equals 300 million, 6.7 million, 20,000 human years + 6 chatur Yugs.
This huge scale starts with a simple eye blink measurement.
These are quantified by calculating the actual movement of the Sun and by observing the phases of the moon. The full moon, new moon, and eclipses were accurately calculated and therefore mathematical derivations were predicted in very early Vedic ages. The two AYANAS (half years) are known as Dakshinayana (movement of the sun from north to south) and Utharayana (from south to north) and the seasons are calculated. Various festivals in India depend on these calculations.
Also, arithmetic calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, arithmetic progression, geometric progression, fractions, etc. they are also given in various verses.
Let us consider the geometric construction of ritual sites.
The Vedas were able to solve mathematical problems in the construction of fire altars that have different shapes but occupy the same area. The altars were built with five layers of burned bricks on the condition that each layer consisted of 200 such bricks and that no adjacent layer had a congruent layer of bricks.
The Sulba Sutras (easy formulas) contain the earliest verbal expression of the Pythagorean theorem as stated in the following Sutra. “The diagonals of an oblong produce both the flank and the horizontal”, which is nothing more than the Pythagorean theorem in early times. form.
Representation of the unknown as “X”:
We are aware that in Mathematics, if two variables are known in a sum and the third is not known, we name it X and the moment the problem is solved, we remove X and put the known number in its place.
Adi Sankara, the founder of Advaita, the well-known Indian philosophy based on Vedic teachings, has used this method to explain the secret of Divinity. Like X, which cannot be defined in mathematics, MAYA (illusion theory) cannot be explained in words. Brahman (The Supreme God) has created this Universe using Maya (illusion).
The formula is Brahman (God) + X = Universe. So the unknown entity X = Universe-Brahman.
Adi Sankara gave the concept of illusion to explain this. that is to say: Universe-Brahman = Illusion (Maya). So illusion = X.
The moment this Maya is removed, the Universe becomes one with Brahman. This is the basic teaching of Advaita founded by Adi Sankara.
As already said, the Vedas were not written. The teachings were passed down from generation to generation through practice. However, UPANISHADS were later written as explanations of the Vedic teachings. The saints have documented them in an orderly manner. KATOPANISHAD is one such Upanishad, as written by Nachiketas, a young Vedic scholar, in his discussions with Lord Yama (God of Death).
Also, there are various sutras (formulas) that have given calculations to measure distances, mass, area, volume, etc. Any book on Vedic mathematics will be able to give a clear treatment of the above topics. Students with mathematical knowledge are requested to review and improve their knowledge based on the Vedas.
There may be so many AGES in the past, but today is the age of computers. Everything is recorded in computers and computerization has completely changed the perspective of life. But there is a clear downside to mechanical knowledge. We can see that even telephone numbers are registered in the machine and referenced from time to time. Modern students have lost the power of memory. But the students of the Vedic period were able to calculate even the highest degrees of calculation simply from memory. Today’s bits, bytes, megabytes, and gigabytes are equivalent to Nimeshas and Kashtas from the Vedic period.
Vedic mathematics has been included in the curriculum in some universities. Students are advised to study and specialize in this aspect of study so that they can master the subject of mathematics through mental power. Combined with modern equipment, they can reach new heights in achieving their goals.